The Golestan Palace , literally the Roseland Palace, is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.
The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, a world heritage, the Golestan Palace belongs to a group of royal buildings that were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg (citadel).
Tehran’s Historic Arg was built during the reign of Tahmasp I (r. 1524-1576) of the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), and was later renovated by Karim Khan of Zand (r. 1750-1779). Agha Mohammad Khan of Qajar (1742–1797) chose Tehran as his capital. The Arg became the site of the Qajar (1794–1925). The Court and the Golestan Palace became the official residence of the royal Qajar family. The palace was rebuilt to its current form in 1865 by Haji Ab ol Hasan Mimar Navai.
During the Pahlavi era (1925–1979), Golestan Palace was used for formal royal receptions, and the Pahlavi dynasty built their own palace at Niavaran (Niavaran Palace Complex). The most important ceremonies, held in the palace during the Pahlavi era, were the coronation of Reza Shah (r. 1925-1941) on the Marble Throne and the coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941-deposed 1979) in the Museum Hall.
In between 1925 and 1945, a large portion of the buildings of the palace were destroyed on the orders of Reza Shah. He believed that the centuries-old Qajar palace should not hinder the growth of a modern city. In the place of the old buildings, commercial buildings with the modern style of 1950s and 1960s were erected.
Golestan Palace Complex consists of 17 structures including palaces, museums, and halls. Almost all of this complex was built during the 200 years ruling of Qajarian kings. These palaces were used for many different occasions such as coronation and other important celebrations.
In its present state, Golestan Palace is the result of roughly 400 years constructions and renovations.
On 2005 October 11, the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran submitted the palace to the UNESCO for inclusion into the World Heritage List in 2007. On 2013 June 23, it was proclaimed as world heritage site during the UNESCO meeting in Phnom Penh.
The Golestan Palace is currently operated by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.